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e-Cigarettes - Wiki Link

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An electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, smokeless cigarette or personal vaporizer, is a battery-powered device that provides inhaled doses of nicotinevaporized solution. It is an alternative to smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. In addition to purported nicotine delivery,[1] this vapor also provides a flavor and physical sensation similar to that of inhaled tobacco smoke, while no smoke or combustion is actually involved in its operation. 

An electronic cigarette takes the form of some manner of elongated tube, though many are designed to resemble the outward appearance of real smoking products, like cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Another common design is the "pen-style", so named for its visual resemblance to a ballpoint pen. Most electronic cigarettes are reusable devices with replaceable and refillable parts. A number of disposable electronic cigarettes have also been developed.

Contents

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[edit] Operation

In automatic models, when a user inhales through the device, air flow is detected by a sensor, which activates a heating element that vaporizes a flavored liquid solution stored in the mouthpiece, which may contain nicotine.[2] On manual models, the user depresses a button to activate the heating element to produce vapor which is then inhaled by the user. On most models an LED on the opposite end of the device is also activated during inhalation, which serves as an indicator of use. Several LED colors are available from various manufacturers.

[edit] Components

A disassembled cigarette-styled electronic cigarette.
A. LED light cover
B. battery (also houses circuitry)
C. atomizer (heating element)
D. cartridge (mouthpiece)

While electronic cigarettes take many forms, they each generally employ the same basic components: a mouthpiece, a heating element, a rechargeable battery, and various electronic circuits.

[edit] Mouthpiece ("cartridge")

The mouthpiece is a small disposable plastic cup-like piece affixed to the end of the tube. Inside the mouthpiece is a smaller plastic cup which holds an absorbent material that is saturated with a flavored liquid solution that may contain nicotine.[3] This inner cup is made such that air is able to flow around it and through a hole in the end of the outer piece; this is necessary for the device to provide the ability for suction to move the vapor into the user's mouth. The mouthpiece is referred to in the industry as a "cartridge". When the liquid in the cartridge has been depleted, it can either be refilled by the user or replaced with another pre-filled cartridge.

As an alternative to the traditional plastic mouthpiece, some manufacturers have created dedicated mouthpieces just for dripping, such as Super-T manufacturing's stainless steel T-Tip drip tip.

Another alternative to using cartridges is the direct dripping method using drip tips. By removing the absorbent material, one is able to simply remove the plastic mouthpiece and drip several drops of e-liquid directly onto the atomizer bridge. To further ease dripping, some manufacturers have created specialty mouthpieces made of stainless steel or plastic that are intended just for dripping and do not require removal each time you drip.

[edit] Heating element ("atomizer")

The heating element serves to vaporize the liquid in the mouthpiece so that it can be inhaled. This component is referred to in the industry as an "atomizer". Atomizers have a finite life of about one month (on average) and are one of the recurring expenses associated with electronic cigarettes. Some models combine an atomizer and pre-filled disposable component referred to as a "cartomizer".

[edit] Battery and electronics

An electronic cigarette battery connected to a USB charger.

Most electronic cigarettes employ a lithium-ion rechargeable battery to power the heating element. Battery life varies depending on the battery type and size, frequency of use, and operating environment. Many different battery charger types are available, such as wall outlet, car, and USB chargers. The battery is generally the largest component of an electronic cigarette.

Some electronic cigarettes employ an electronic airflow sensor to automatically activate the heating element upon inhalation, while other models require the user to press a button while inhaling. Various other electronic circuits are usually employed as well, such as a timed cutoff switch to prevent overheating and a colored LED to signal activation of the device and also to mimick the glow of a cigarette's end tip.

Traditionally, electronic cigarettes have utilized an electronic means of activation. This involved the use of small tactile switches, vacuum switches and the related wiring and electronics necessary to run them. Users soon discovered these could be unreliable. With the advent of "mods", several manufacturers have created all-mechanical electronic cigarettes that eliminate the use of any wiring, solder or electronics in an effort to improve switch reliability.

While some larger electronic cigarette models employ a user-replaceable standard-size battery cell, many models are too small to house a standard-size cell and instead require a proprietary component made by the electronic cigarette manufacturer. For those models, the battery and electronic components are housed within a single replaceable part, which is still generally referred to in the industry simply as the "battery".

[edit] Nicotine and non-nicotine solution

Nicotine solutions sold separately for use in refillable cartridges are sometimes referred to as "e-liquid" or "e-juice", and commonly contain some amount of flavoring, with hundreds of different flavors available. They consist of nicotine dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) and/or vegetable glycerin (glycerol) or VG. Both PG and VG are common food additives.

Solutions are also available in differing nicotine concentrations, to let the user decide the amount of nicotine to be taken in. Concentrations range from Zero Nicotine, low and midrange doses (6–8 mg/ml and 10–14 mg/ml respectively), to high and extra-high doses (16–18 mg/ml and 20–54 mg/ml respectively). The concentration ratings are often printed at the e-liquid bottle or cartridge, although the standard notation "mg/ml" often gets abbreviated to just "mg". Solutions are also available that contain no nicotine at all.[2]

Some flavor varieties attempt to resemble traditional cigarette types, such as regular tobacco and menthol, and some even attempt to mimic specific cigarette brands, such as Marlboro or Camel. Fruit and other flavors are also available, such as vanilla, caramel, and coffee.

Below are some of the different liquid solution compositions available:[4][5]

Substance

Recipe 1

Recipe 2

Recipe 3

Recipe 4

Recipe 5

Propylene glycol

85%

80%

90%

80%

 

Nicotine

1.6%

2.4%

3.2%

0.1%

 

Glycerol

2%

5%

-

5%

 

Tobacco essence

-

4%

4.5%

1%

 

Essence

2%

-

1%

1%

 

Organic acid

1%

-

-

2%

 

Anti-oxidation agent

1%

-

-

-

-

Butyl valerate

-

1%

-

-

-

Isopentyl hexonate

-

1%

-

-

-

Lauryl laurate

-

0.6%

-

-

-

Benzyl benzoate

-

0.4%

-

-

-

Methyl octynicate

-

0–5%

-

-

-

Ethyl heptylate

-

0.2%

-

-

-

Hexyl hexanoate

-

0.3%

-

-

-

Geranyl butyrate

-

2%

-

-

-

Menthol

-

0.5%

-

-

-

Citric acid

-

0.5%

2.5%

-

-

Water

-

-

-

2.9%

 

Alcohol

-

-

-

8%

-

2,3,5-Trimethylpyrazine

-

-

-

-

 

2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine

-

-

-

-

 

2,3-Dimethylpyrazine

-

-

-

-

 

Acetylpyrazine

-

-

-

-

 

Terpineol

-

-

-

-

 

Ethyl maltol

-

-

-

-

 

Guaiacol

-

-

-

-

 

Acetylpyridine

-

-

-

-

 

Octalactone

-

-

-

-

 

 

[6]
The contents of a commonly imported tobacco flavored liquid from China.

Scientific Name

CAS

6 mg Core

11 mg Core

16 mg Core

Megastigmatrienone

13215-88-8

14.00%

14.00%

14.00%

Beta-Damascenone

23696-85-7

12.00%

12.00%

12.00%

G2-Acetylpyrazine

22047-25-2

0.10%

0.10%

0.10%

2,5-Dimethyl pyrazine

123-32-0

0.20%

0.20%

0.20%

1,3-Propanediol

57-55-6

68.10%

67.60%

67.10%

L-Nicotine

54-11-5

0.60%

1.10%

1.60%

Linalool

11-05-54

5.00%

5.00%

5.00%


Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers

[edit] Markets

[edit] American

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has classified electronic cigarettes as a drug delivery device and subject to market approval prior to sale under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). In January 2010, this classification was overturned by a federal judge, but an appeals court overruled the judge's classification on March 2010. Despite this, a number of electronic cigarette companies have emerged online. In September 2010, the FDA announced that it would begin regulating e-cigarettes, because they comprise both a drug and a drug delivery device.[7] Following this announcement, the FDA began regulatory action against five American companies "for violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), including unsubstantiated claims and poor manufacturing practices."[7]

[edit] European

In April 2006, the electronic cigarette was brought to Europe, and officially launched at the "RUYAN" Overseas Promotion Conference in Austria.[8] After its introduction, this product was adapted to the European market and marketed in UK as the "electronic cigarette". In 2007, ReutersMatt Salmon, president of the recently formed Electronic Cigarette Association, the total number of e-cigarette users was estimated to be 300,000 in October 2009, based on survey results. In his opinion, Salmon added, the actual figure was in excess of that.[9] visited SBT RUYAN in Beijing, which drew media attention to the technology. According to

[edit] Health issues

The health effects of using electronic cigarettes are currently unknown. Several studies regarding the long-term health effects of inhaling nicotine vapor are currently in progress.[10]

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5289/is_20100211/ai_n50249105/

[edit] Health effects of nicotine

Nicotine is a vasoconstrictor; it constricts arteries, making it harder for the heart to pump blood through the body. Repeated nicotine exposure contributes to accelerated coronary artery disease, acute cardiac ischemic events, and hypertension[11]stroke, peptic ulcer disease, and esophageal reflux.[11][11] Moreover, nicotine can cause the body to release its stores of fat and cholesterol into the blood.[12] Additionally, studies have shown that nicotine exposure contributes to Further, nicotine may cause wounds to heal more slowly and may be associated with reproductive toxicity.

Nicotine replacement therapies, such as nicotine gum, that were used for long periods of time may be associated with an increased risk of contracting oral cancer.[13]

[edit] Food and Drug Administration (US)

In May 2009, the US FDA's Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis tested the contents of 19 varieties of electronic cigarette cartridges produced by two vendors (NJoy and Smoking Everywhere).[14] Diethylene glycol was detected in one of the cartridges manufactured by Smoking Everywhere.[14] In addition, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were detected in all of the cartridges from one brand and two of the cartridges from the other brand. The study found that the actual nicotine levels did not always correspond to the amount of nicotine the cartridges purported to contain[14] The analysis found traces of nicotine in some cartridges that claimed to be nicotine-free.[14] Further concerns were raised over inconsistent amounts of nicotine delivered when drawing on the device.[15] In July 2009, the FDA issued a press release discouraging the use of electronic cigarettes and repeating previously stated concerns that electronic cigarettes may be marketed to young people and lack appropriate health warnings.[16]

In response to the FDA study, the Electronic Cigarette Association said that the testing was too "narrow to reach any valid and reliable conclusions.”[14] The FDA's study was reviewed in July 2009 by scientific consulting firm Exponent, Inc., in a report commissioned by the manufacturer of one of the electronic cigarettes tested by the FDA. Some of the criticisms in Exponent's report are poor standards of documentation and analysis. Exponent lists previous studies that have detected TSNA levels in FDA-approved nicotine replacement therapy products comparable to those the FDA detected in their study, and objects to the FDA making no comparisons to such products in their analysis of electronic cigarettes. Ultimately the review concludes that the FDA's study did not support the claims of potential adverse health effects from the use of electronic cigarettes.[17]

 

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